‘& #$% !”

! ” #$%” &’ (I) : 0 ” ). ,” 1/ ,” + -. (/ .( )* +
./ (I) )* 4+ /. 5& 67″ +2. 03 + 0 6 0 4″! + &A – B/< C [email protected] ) 9 .> 9: 5.;< =
GH + D +” &I 4 B, EF + D -” 4 B / [email protected] 4# %
:/ L / – 0 M – -&, 1 N/ = ./ -!3 K / 2″ J;
=ST RPQ°C, NaCl=UVW g/l, + D -“=XWWAm , NaOH =Q/T g/l , K٢Cr٢O٧=Q/Z g/l

[ 4+ D +” 40/ < 4″ #$%” 4L&& I” 4 :
\ +0 ,D 0 )a \ / ./ ‘” u$F % (/ ‘v 0/ < # % *
CuO a xS – ,” # H% w F . p*F
./ t 7&d/ < # H% + L 0 3 D
4 B / C” &” . “! yI 0 Ld/ 4
./ l B / C” 3 B / C -/ B/ – z (Eh-pH) – < s3 – -D < . sIt p” c . [email protected] 4Cu-Cl–HO
4B P c pH CuCl1n−n ( n=U|) # % ( – / < CuCl # %” = < . pH –
P c pH – # H% + L 0 3 D ?&
.[i] B?& x RZZ $`A # % = < )* ]a
(/ ” #$%” B” 0 4sIt p” 0 &@ K
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. Ld/ (.) + -. 1/ . \ / : ” #$%” ) ” // 5&
Cu + nCl−− =e− CuCl1n−n (n=U| ) (Z)
: +2. + 0 ) // 5&
2H O2 +2e− = H (g)2 +2OH− (i)
: \ / )* + -. ) 5&
2CuCl1n−n +2OH− = Cu O2 ↓+H O2 + nCl− (o)

.
C! . \ / L0
-!3 K -D CuO 4ZnO 4TlO 4AgO ?” 4]^ ) 6_/ – `a HF = 4/ #& b< G_I” 4 +/ ‘. 4 6& . 4 L
4# H% c d * 4.> .[iZ] / f/& g . = L ‘” Ne kK l + &A – 0* m &a (I) 0 Ld/ ,* 6″ n” 5 0 J + &A – n” m &a n” + &A – p/ m &a (I) .[o] 0 + &A – 4=&q. . GH L&. -” aF 6_/ – `F . .& ! +0 F . # / F/ + 0 4(I) .
.[r] / L Ld/ K # % &’
&D 0 ” 4 = . / +! sIt p”

/ / :
// :
!”# $
[email protected] !”# $
% & % &!’ (
[email protected] !”# $ )% *+, ‘( )*+ ,-.’
% $ MBA) )% & !”#
[email protected] %

.
. a xx/xx w F …0″ 6 0 ” &D ˆ mm ,” ^l Vˆ/‡ mm . – = †A . \^” 9 . 5 0 – # % B7 ./
(UUW RUVW g/l) NaCl 0 &@ # % L ‡WWcm
+ &A – L! NaOH – pH B?& –
. Ld/ Q/Z g/l B/< C 0 “! J

.
C a – “4 ‡WW cm * p ) # / 0 # / = ./ L L +*” Z )‰ -[ 4 – 3 F # H ,D + =!t 1/ ” p 5. ‘9 + D +” . Ld/ ” Š_/ F & €_) ‹ +0 5. – e 0 I ” +0 C’A 2″ J; GH L + a N/ (L! + “K s3 p A/ C f !H 2” 0
. CuO

!” #$ .

. -‘/% ” +0 5. 0 L CuO e 6 s7″ +0 C UV mm 0 ” 6a! e #$F ./ L -eK oQ 9 ,* 0 =g” ,” 3 ‘9 p -eK p . pH 42
?& # / 1/ 2 + &A – L ‘9 .2
. 3 # % )F ” m_K + D 4 +0 s C / 0 ) _ s” -‚< ” (/ .” * p*F */ – _e \ L”K L&’‚
6’/% +0 5. 3 = 0 #7 0 1/ . / 2″ J; GH + D +”
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: o Z CcI mD )a 4# / 5& = &
2Cu +H O2 → H (g) Cu O2 + 2 (r)
.& 0″ CuO )* (OH−) ). ,” # % “! J + &A – NaOH +! / = + [email protected] 5 ! &I 4# % 6 0 5 ! fD 4 6e_& 0 – ! J0″ – pH L ). )e& 4  = < – pH=P 0 `’ e – 4CuCl <
.& ). ,” 4(o 5&) a 5& €’t !.  d” 4 CD, L 5& (OH−) – Cu2O u 0 3 D .&/ ” K – K Ld/ B/< C &” . “! ! :/ =&‚ CuO u 5& .”3
Cu O2 + H O2 +2e− → 2Cu +2OH− (T)
” L” 0 L&& I” + &A – B/< C
! < – CuO u 5& s7″ 0 3 D
.[i] (T 5&) ,” – / C a = – 3&& I” B”
C ,” ” – ƒD t – 0 # % C
:” – 7
Cr O2 72− +2OH− = 2CrO24− + H O2 („)
:” u 0 C a – C ,” (/
CrO24− + 4H O2 + 3e− = Cr(OH) (s)3+ 5OH− (S)
0″ 6 c C a – L )* # %” . 5& = & ./ – . – c = 4″ < u 0 – & < – +&q. +2. + 0
. I” ! – CuO [email protected] + D 6″ d^ e 4-&, 1 ?” 0 – / L -ƒ [Ti] = / Cee% . 3 NaOH ) 4, / t Cd 0 ” ” . G$F =
= p& . > . I
.[„] . L C> / – 4l 5.;< & ! -I_ 2″ J; GH + D +” C> &I B, EF 9: 4 6&, 1 – / G. L -F< 6 0 4sIt p” [email protected] 4 ” + D 6″ + ‚ A
B/< C “! 0 Ld/ 4 # % ./ L / a EF =

+ &A – B/< C 0 Ld/ A 4 L – _”. 5& s7″ 0 + 3&& I” 5e” tF – “! J
0 Ld/ Š_/ ! – CuO J u
./ ! 0 A # H% – +/ + (Ld Ld) F & @ C a – C y ” y ” 5& #$F # – L F
0 Ld/ sA C a 4g Gt 0 . C
– (L 3) -F C a – # H% \ / 4B/< C
B/< C d& C9 [email protected] .’‚ ! 0 A # H% + / ,D + 0 Ld/ =. + [email protected] -a . b<” \&D 0 ! ) Gb C e = . d XRD ” -7″ – -D ! .& d # H% t – -&, 1 ( U )) L / – # H% c` X -I < g # p< ./ L Gb )
(CuOCl) (CuCl) C’ – z
HF” e # p< – €I ‚” C – -D .
. & 5< …”

78 9* 34 6$6 XRD *- .

(;8) NaOH ‘(“) *+ .% WRW oC . 5 0 4NaOH [email protected] 9 / e – C “! irQ g/l B / [email protected] xQQ Am ” + D -” #A Q/Z g/l
. s7″ -eK oQ 9 +0 W/WR/W g/l 0 NaOH ,[email protected] L (r) (o) . ) . 5 0 / = 0 )a Ž ” 5 ! 4 L.* . ” 0 – -” g”. ./ L c ,[email protected] 5 ! 2″ L; GH NaOH [email protected] [email protected] 5 ! =&q. . 9 `’ e 2″ L; GH
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(/ + D +” ƒD 5 ! Q /T g/l+ NaOH +” ! A . L.* c e + 5. &I NaOH c ,[email protected] 2″ J; GH 5 ! + D )* – 7& – A! ,*& s7″ – + c pH .& ! )a \ / ” -I_ L a! # % – ?& = . s7″ \ / ZZ C – (/ . =*” – $` + + \ / -*. . = g D STRPQoC_e \ / # % \ / + 0 ” K \ / Š_/ \ e 5 0 * 6 ) 0 +&t . 3 D Le” C” +! / # % . ) * 4 ” )* AgCl Le” \ / – “0 . 0/ < CA 4 * 6 0 I . 3 e )
)” U/W g/l [email protected] (Benzotriazole) #0 & # % 1/
L&& < # % 4 = 4 s7″ EF
. L! L -^ -/ GŒ p – \ / \ 47″ # t – A/ ir C – – 0/ < 0 < GŒ < 3 / + 0 0/ < # % 0 GŒ < . 3 7 ‘” u$F -b3 / p 0 \ / L K = p*F + / + 0 n” K \ / p*F 0 -“‘ p C – SQ oC
. / GΠ] (I)

.
4B/< C “! [email protected] . < 9: 5.;< = + D 6″ 4sIt p” [email protected] 4 # % 6 0
1 – / ,D 4 ,HF ”
./ L / 6&,

,- */ & ‘(“) *+ .% 4W/W [email protected] -/ ,* 0 4C “! 9 / g/l 9 1 % B/< C 0 s3 W/U W/ˆ xQQ Am + D -” 0 / / Q/T g/l p” irQ L / – Ž ” . s7″ -eK oQC – W oC +” 4C [email protected] 5 ! ./ L -ƒ Z #D 2 5 ! 0 I’ – 2″ J; GH 5. + D , / )* – + = A . 5 ! 1/
.” z ” #$%” = (II , I) C # %”

,- */ & ‘(“) *2 34 56 . !01
K٢Cr٢O٧ (g/l) / / /
(%) / / /
VAve (V) / / /
I(A)

(kWhkg-١ Cu٢O ) / / /
&'( )* !” # $ % ”
*2 !”F G6 pH *2 .E !01
Δ =pH pHfinal −pHinitial HNaOH ‘(“)
NaOH
(g/l) / /
pHinitial / / / / /
pHfinal / / / / /
ΔpH / / / / /
Color Bright-
Red Red-
Violet Dark-
Red Dark-
Red Dark-
Red

NaCl ‘(“) *+ .%% 4STRPQ°C 5 0 I 4-&, [email protected] =I ?& – g/l B/< C [email protected] W/‡ g/l NaOH [email protected] J% NaCl [email protected] . 5 0 = . s7″ W/ˆ -eK oQ 5 0 +0 C . L > PQ RirQg/l
= Ž ” 4 – -g” 9 xQQ Am + D 6″
./ L L +*” („) (T) . ) . 5 0

80
40
120
160
200
240
280
%
)
(

80
85
90
95
100

80

40

120

160



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