ƪǀƬŰţƹƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƾƤǀƠƬţŵźĪƿƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝƲƷōƵřŹƾƿřŹŚĩŵƺŞƸŝ ƾƬƿŹƶĪŞƃŹŵŹŚŝƪưůƮŤƀǀſƽŵŹƺƯƶƘƫŚƐƯžŚƷƵŵřŵƾƄƃƺě
ƱřźƿřƾƯLjſřƽŹƺƸưū
ƽŹŚƤƠƫřƹŷƲƀůƹ *ƵřƺųźǀųƱŚƯŚſźǀƯř
ƵŶǀĪģƽŶǀƬĩšŚưƬĩ

ƁƹŹĨưĩƶŝƱřźƿřƾƯLjſřƽŹƺƸưūƾƬƿŹƪƤƳƹƪưůƶĪŞƃŹŵŹŚŝƪưůƮŤƀǀſƶƫŚƤƯƲƿřŹŵŶƯŚƄǀěƶŤƀƀĭƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ
ƶĩ ŶƷŵƾƯ ƱŚƄƳ ƩŶƯ ƪǀƬŰţ Ţſř ƵŶƃ ƽŻŚƀƫŶƯ ŶƯŚƄǀě ƶŤƀƀĭ ƽŚƷƮŤƀǀſ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝ
ŵřŶƘţŚţŵŹřŵƾĮŤƀŝřƹƶĪŞƃƽŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿřŹŵƽźǀĭŹŚŝƹƶǀƬŴţšŚƳŚĪƯřƶŝźŤƄǀŝƮŤƀǀſŢǀƟźƓƾƿřŹŚĩ
ƶƴǀƸŝŵřŶƘţƲǀǀƘţƶŬǀŤƳŹŵƹŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţƽŻŚſƪƣřŶůƶƫŚƤƯƲƿřŹŵřŸƫŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫƹŚƷƲĭřƹŚƷƵŵřŵƾƄƃƺěƪǀƬŰţ
ƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝŢſřƵŶƃƶŤƟźĭźƔƳŹŵƮŤƀǀſƾƿřŹŚĩŵƺŞƸŝƽŚƸƷřŹŻřƾĪƿƱřƺƴƗƶŝŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ ƱřźƿřƾƯLjſřƽŹƺƸưūƲƷōƵřŹ
ŵƺūƺƯƽŚƷƲĭřƹƪĩéŻřƂǀŝƶĩŶƷŵƾƯƱŚƄƳƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƁƹŹƶƬǀſƹƶŝƮŤƀǀſ

ƱřżǀƯžƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝŻřŶƘŝƶĪŞƃƾƿřŹŚĩŌŚƤţŹřƱřżǀƯƪǀƬŰţŹƺƔƴƯƶŝŢſřŻŚǀƳźŝŵřŻŚƯƶĪŞƃŹŵ
ƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝ Żř žě ƹ ƪŞƣ Źŵ ŚƷƵŵřŵ ƾƄƃƺě ƪǀƬŰţ ƁƹŹ Żř ƵŵŚƠŤſř Śŝ ƞƬŤŴƯ ƾůřƺƳ ƾƿřŹŚĩ
ƩŚů Źŵ ŹŚŝ ƂŴŝ Źŵ ƾƬƿŹ ƪƤƳƹƪưů ƮŤƀǀſ ŶƷŵƾƯ ƱŚƄƳ ŪƿŚŤƳ Ţſř ƵŶƃ ƶƀƿŚƤƯ ƹ ƾŝŚƿŻŹř ƂƿřżƟř ê Żř Ƃǀŝ ƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝ Żř ŶƘŝ ƶĩ ŶƴĩƾƯ ŢǀƫŚƘƟ ƾưſř ŢǀƟźƓ źƿŻ æî ŵƹŶů źƋŚů

ƾƬƘƟ ƪŰƯ Źŵ æèåë ƩŚſ Źŵ Ʊřźƿř ƽźſřźſ ƲƷōƵřŹ ŢųŚſ ƲƷōƵřŹƱŚưŤųŚſľŚưſŹŢƣƹƱŚưƷŻřƹŶƃƕƹźƃƱřźƸţƵŚĮŤƀƿř
ƶŝ ƶūƺţ Śŝ >æ@ Ŷƿŵźĭ ŻŚƛō ƩŚưƃ żƧźƯ śƺƴū ƶƐƤƳ ƶſ Żř ƲƷō ƵřŹ ƶŝ Ʊō ƩŚƈţř ƹ Ʊřźƿř ƾƯLjſř ƽŹƺƸưū ƲƷōƵřŹ ƶƘſƺţ ƵƹŚūŚƠƬūžųźſƽŻřŹƽŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿřƢƿźƏŻřŚěƹŹřƹƶƳŚǀƯŹƹŚų ƽŹřŵźŝƵźƸŝƹƢǀƣŵƽżƿŹƶƯŚƳźŝŶƴƯŻŚǀƳžƾƿŚƿŹŵƾƿŚƷƩŚƴǀƯźţƹ ƹŹŚŝƾƿŚŬŝŚūŹŵƾƿŚƟƺĪƃƹŶƃŹƶŝƶĩŢſřƱŚĭƹŚƳŻřŮǀŰƇ
ƂƷŚĩƹƾƬƿŹƾŤƿżƳřźţƵƺƤƫŚŝƪǀƀƳŚŤěŻřƶƴǀƸŝƵŵŚƠŤſřƹźƟŚƀƯ ƾƿřŹŚĩ ƂƿřżƟř ƹ ƱŚĭƹŚƳ Ŷǀƫƺţ ƹ Ŷƿźų ƽLJŚŝ ŹŚǀƀŝ ƽŚƷƶƴƿżƷ ƍƺƐųźŤƯƺƬǀĩîåèëŻřƲƷōƵřŹźƋŚůƩŚůŹŵŶƃŶƷřƺųźŬƴƯ æëåíƽŹŚŝƲĭřƹçæìçëƾƗźƟƍƺƐųźŤƯƺƬǀĩçéêìƾƬƇř ƶǀůŚƳ æé ƹ ƾƬƇř ƵŚĮŤƀƿř éåç ƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ ëèë ƽźƟŚƀƯ Ʋĭřƹ źƟŚƀƯ źƠƳ ŹřżƷ çëççê íì ƩŚſ Źŵ Ţſř ŹřŵŹƺųźŝ ƾƬƇř
ƹ ŹŚŝ Ʋţ ŹřżƷ èèåéé źƟŚƀƯ źŤƯƺƬǀĩ źƠƳ ƱƺǀƬǀƯ æêèæç
ŢſřƵŶƃŚŬŝŚūƲƷōƵřŹƎſƺţŹŚŝźŤƯƺƬǀĩƲţƱƺǀƬǀƯçåêéå >ç@ ŢƃřŵŶƷřƺųƾƿřŹŚĩ
ÎƶƯŶƤƯ æ
ƹLJŚĩƾƿŚŬŝŚūŹŵLJŚŝŢǀƟźƓŚŝƹřŹŚĩƽřƶƬǀſƹƱřƺƴƗƶŝƲƷōƵřŹ Źŵ ƲƷō ƵřŹ ƂƤƳ ŵŹřŵ ŹƺƄĩ źƷ ŵŚƈŤƣř Źŵ ƾưƸƯ ƂƤƳ źƟŚƀƯ ƪĩ Źŵ ƽŵŚƈŤƣř ƹ ƾŤǀƘưū żĩřźƯ Ʊŵƺŝ ƵŶƴĩřźě ƪǀƫŵ ƶŝ Ʊřźƿř ŹřŵŹƺųźŝ ƾƿLJŚŝ ŢǀưƷř Żř ŚƸƳō Ʋǀŝ ŵŚƿŻ ľŚŤŞƀƳ ŢƟŚƀƯ ƹ ŹƺƄĩ ƽŚƷƵĥƹźě Ɩƿźſ ƽŹƹō ŵƺſ ƭŶƗ ƹ ƾƫŚƯ ƖŝŚƴƯ ŢƿŵƹŶŰƯ Ţſř ƹ Ţſř ƲƷōƵřŹ ƶĪŞƃ ƁźŤƀĭ ƾƬƇř ƖƳřƺƯ Żř ƲƷōƵřŹ ƾƿŚƴŝźƿŻ
ơƺƟŢǀưƷřŻřŵƺūƺƯšŚƳŚĪƯřƹƖŝŚƴƯŻřƶƴǀƸŝƵŵŚƠŤſřƲƿřźŝŚƴŝ
ŢſřŹřŵŹƺųźŝƽřƵŵŚƘƫř

îåçæçƩƺƇƹŲƿŹŚţ îåèçêŜƿƺƈţŲƿŹŚţ
ƾưƬƗ ŢŘǀƷ ƺƌƗ Ƶřƺųźǀų ƱŚƯŚſźǀƯř źŤĩŵ ƶƫŚƤƯ ƩƺŘƀƯ ƵŶƴƀƿƺƳ*

ŚƴǀſƾƬƗƺŝƵŚĮƄƳřŵƾſŶƴƸƯƵŶĪƄƳřŵƖƿŚƴƇƾſŶƴƸƯƵƹźĭ
Kheirkhah@basu.ac.ir
Śƴǀſ ƾƬƗƺŝ ƵŚĮƄƳřŵ ƖƿŚƴƇ ƾſŶƴƸƯ ŶƃŹř ƾſŚƴƃŹŚĩ įŹŚƤƠƫřƹŷ Ʋƀů
HassanZolfaghari@gmail.com
çêêƽŹŚƤƠƫřƹŷƲƀůƹƵřƺųźǀųƱŚƯŚſźǀƯřƪǀƬŰţƹƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƾƤǀƠƬţŵźĪƿƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝƲƷōƵřŹƾƿřŹŚĩŵƺŞƸŝ

ƶƫŚƀƯ ŵŹƺƯ Źŵ >æç@ ƱřŹŚĪưƷ ƹ ŚƳŚƿŵ çååë ƩŚſ Źŵ >ææ@ žƿƹźſ Ĩƿ ŵŚŬƿř ƽřźŝ ŻŚǀƳ ŵŹƺƯ ƶǀƬƤƳ ƶƬǀſƹ ŵřŶƘţ ƲǀǀƘţ Ǝſƺţ ƵŶƃ ƲǀǀƘţ Ƃǀě Żř ŢǀƠǀĩ Ĩƿ Śŝ ƺĮŴſŚě ƪƤƳƹƪưů ƝřźŰƳřƭƺưƿżĩŚƯƹ ŚƷƞƣƺţ Źŵ ŹŚƔŤƳřƽŚƷƱŚƯŻ Ŝƀůźŝ źŝŹŚĩ Śŝ>æè@ƱřŹŚĪưƷƹƲƿƹŵŚĭçååíƩŚſŹŵŶƳřƵŵźĩƢǀƤŰţžŻŚŬƯ
ƱŚĭƹŚƳƵŻřŶƳřƽřźŝƽźǀŝŶţƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃźŝƾƴŞƯŵźĪƿƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſř
ŶƳřƵŵźĩŵŚƸƴƄǀěŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ ĨǀĪƠţ ƱƹŶŝ ŚěƹŹř ƽŚƷƲƷōƵřŹ ƾƿřŹŚĩ ƾŝŚƿŻŹř ƶŝ >æé@ ŽƺŤƳŚĩ ŚƷƵŵřŵ ƾƄƃƺě ƪǀƬŰţ Żř ƵŵŚƠŤſř Śŝ ƽźƟŚƀƯ ƹ ƽŹŚŝ ƂŴŝ ŚŝƶŤƟźĭƭŚŬƳřŚǀƳŚĜſřŹƺƄĩŹŵƶĩƶƘƫŚƐƯƲƿřŹŵŢſřƶŤųřŵźě ƶŤųřŵźěŚƸƳōƾƿřŹŚĩƾŝŚƿŻŹřƶŝƾƿŚěƹŹřŹƺƄĩæëƲŤƟźĭźƔƳŹŵ ŶŗƺſƽŚƷŹƺƄĩƲƷōƵřŹƶƘƫŚƐƯƲƿřŻřƪƇŚůŪƿŚŤƳƶŝƶūƺţŚŝƶĩ ƽŚƷŹƺƄĩ ƲƷōƵřŹ ƹ ƾƿřŹŚĩ ƲƿźţLJŚŝ Żř ŶƴƬƷ ƹ ŶƳLjƴƟ žǀŗƺſ ƾƯŹřŵŹƺųźŝƾƿřŹŚĩƲƿźţƲǀƿŚěŻřƱŚƳƺƿƹŶƴƫźƿřħŹŚưƳřŵĥƹźƳ
ƪǀƬŰţƩŶƯŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝ>æê@ƲǀƫƹƺƿçååíƩŚſŹŵŶƴƃŚŝ ƲǀưŴţƽřźŝƱŚƯżưƷŹƺƐŝƶƟŶƷŶƴģƽřƶĪŞƃŚƷƵŵřŵƾƄƃƺě ƹŹŚŝƂŴŝŹŵƾƴƟƾƄŴŝźŧřƹšŚƯŶųƾƄŴŝźŧřƾƴƟƾƿřŹŚĩ ƹ ŚƷƺŬŤƀū ƢŞƏŶƳřƶŤƟźĭŹŚĪŝƾŝŚŴŤƳřƲƷōƵřŹçåƽřźŝźƟŚƀƯ ŢƸūVRSƩŶƯ ŻřŚǀƫřźŤſř Źŵ ŚƸƴţ ƱƺƴƧŚţ ƲǀƤƤŰƯ ƽŚƷƶŤƟŚƿ ƂƷƹĦě Ʋƿř ŢſřƵŶƃ ƵŵŚƠŤſř ŚǀƳŵ ƽŚƷƲƷōƵřŹ Żř ƾųźŝ ƶƀƿŚƤƯ šŹƺƇ ƽŵLjǀƯæîîî ƩŚſ Źŵ>æë@ƽŹƹƵźƸŝ ƱƺǀƀǀưƧ Ǝſƺţ çç ƽŚƷƲƷōƵřŹ Śŝ ŚǀƫřźŤſřƽŚƷƲƷōƵřŹ ƢǀƤŰţ Ʋƿř ŹŵŢſř ƶŤƟźĭ źŤƯřŹŚě ë ƹ ƽŵƹŹƹ źŤƯřŹŚě韍ƯřŹŚě æå Żř ƵŵŚƠŤſř Śŝ ƹ ŹƺƄƧ
ŶƳřƵŶƃ ƶƀƿŚƤƯƾūƹźų ƪů ƹ ƽŻŚƀƫŶƯ ƶŝ >æì@ ƱŚƸǀŝ ƹ ŚƿŚĪƴǀĪƫŚƿ çååî ƩŚſ Źŵ Źŵ śřƺū ŮƐſ ƁƹŹ ƹ ŶƯŚƄǀě ƶŤƀƀĭ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ źŝ ƾƴŤŞƯ ŶƴƿōźƟŹŵƱřźƟŚƀƯźǀſƱŚƯŻƲǀĮƳŚǀƯƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƶƫŚƀƯŚŝƶƐŝřŹ ƱřŹŚĪưƷ ƹ ƵŵřŻō çååí ƩŚſ Źŵ ŶƳřƶŤųřŵźě ƹźŤƯ ƽżƿŹƶƯŚƳźŝ ƽźţƺǀĜƯŚĩ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ Śŝ AHP ƹ DEA ƽŻŚſƶģŹŚĜĪƿ Śŝ >æí@ ƹƪĄěŶƳřƵŵźĩƵŵŚƠŤſřƲƷōƵřŹƮŤƀǀſƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƹŵƺŞƸŝƽřźŝ
řŹ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƩŶƯ ĨǀŤƳĥ ƽŚƷƮŤƿŹƺĮƫř Żř ƵŵŚƠŤſř Śŝ ƱřŹŚĪưƷ >æî@ŶƳřƵŵźĩƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝ
ƽŵŚƸƴƄǀěƁƹŹè
ŵźĪƿƹŹ Śŝ ƾƬƿŹ ƶĪŞƃ Źŵ ŹŚŝ ƪưů ƮŤƀǀſ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ  ƽŻŚſ ƶǀŞƃ ŶƯŚƄǀě ƶŤƀƀĭ ƽŚƷƮŤƀǀſƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ
ƵŵƺŝƱŚƯŻŢƃŸĭŚŝƾƘƣřƹŶƴƿōźƟŚƿƮŤƀǀſĨƿŻřƽŶǀƬƤţ ƽŻŚſ ƩŶƯ Żř Ţſř šŹŚŞƗ ŶƯŚƄǀě ƶŤƀƀĭ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƹ ƶŤƀƀĭƽřƶƗƺưŬƯŹŵŚƸƳōŹŵŢƫŚůźǀƜŤƯƶĩƾƿŚƷƮŤƀǀſ źƷ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ŹƺƔƴƯ ƶŝ >çå@ ŶƴĩƾƯ źǀǀƜţ ƱŚƯŻ Żř ƲǀǀƘţ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƝřŶƷř ƹ ƮŤƀǀſ ƽřżūř řŶŤŝř ƾưŤƀǀſ
ƽŶƘŝƭŚĭŶƳƺƃƾƯƮǀſźţƆŴƄƯƹƾƯƺƸƠƯƩŶƯƹƵŶƃ

Źŵ ƾƬƿŹ ƪƤƳƹƪưů ƶĪŞƃ ŢǀƟźƓ źŝ źŧƺƯ ƪƯřƺƗ ƶƫŚƤƯ Ʋƿř Źŵ ŢſřƵŶƃƪǀƬŰţƮŤƀǀſƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝŹŚŝƪưůƂŴŝ
ƶŝŢŞƀƳƶĪŞƃŢǀƟźƓƶĩŢſřƱōŻřƾĩŚůƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃŪƿŚŤƳ řŸƫƵŵƺŝźţŽŚƀůƶǀƬŴţƹƽźǀĭŹŚŝƽŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿřŹŵŢŝŚŧšŚƳŚĪƯř
ƶŝ źŬƴƯŶƳřƺţƾƯ ŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ ƹ ŚƷƲĭřƹ ƵŶƄƳ ƽżƿŹƶƯŚƳźŝ ƂƿřżƟř
ŵŵźĭƮŤƀǀſƾƿřŹŚĩƂƷŚĩ ƶŝŵƺūƺƯŢǀƟźƓƒƠůŚŝŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƶƫŚƤƯƲƿřŹŵ ƵŶƃƶŤƟźĭźƔƳŹŵƽŹƹƵźƸŝƂƿřżƟřŹŵźŧƺƯƪůƵřŹĨƿƱřƺƴƗ ƽŚƷƮŤƀǀſ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ źŝ ƾƴŤŞƯ ƾƬƇř ƩŶƯ ƶĩ ŚŬƳō Żř Ţſř ƪůŹŵƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƽŚƷƁƹŹŢſřŶƯŚƄǀěƶŤƀƀĭ ŻřžěƾƿřŹŚĩŵƺŞƸŝƱřżǀƯƹŢſřƶŤƟźĭŹřźƣƵŵŚƠŤſřŵŹƺƯƶƫŚƀƯ
ƵŶƃ ƾŝŚƿŻŹř ŚƷ Ƶŵřŵ ƾƄƃƺě ƪǀƬŰţ Żř ƵŵŚƠŤſř Śŝ ƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝ
Ţſř ŵƺƃƾƯŹƹźƯƶƫŚƤƯƕƺƋƺƯŚŝƎŞţźƯŵƺūƺƯšŚǀŝŵřřŶŤŝřƶƯřŵřŹŵ Ƶŵřŵ ŭźƃƢǀƤŰţ ƁƹŹ ƽŵŚƸƴƄǀě ƁƹŹ ƾƬĩ śƺģŹŚģ žĜſ ŵŹƺƯŹŵįŵŚƸƴƄǀěƁƹŹƽźǀĭŹŚĪŝƾĮƳƺĮģéƂŴŝŹŵŵƺƃƾƯ
ŪƿŚŤƳƹƵŶƃƵŵřŵŭźƃƾƯLjſřƽŹƺƸưūƾƬƿŹƪƤƳƹƪưůƶĪŞƃ ƵŶƯōŢſŶŝŪƿŚŤƳŮǀƋƺţƹŦŰŝƶŝêƂŴŝŵŵźĭƾƯƶŗřŹřƪƇŚů
ƶƫŚƤƯƾƳŚƿŚěƂŴŝŜƫŚƐƯƽźǀĭƶŬǀŤƳƹƽŶƴŝƖưūŵŹřŵƅŚƈŤųř ŶƃŚŝƾƯ
ƕƺƋƺƯšŚǀŝŵřźŝƽŹƹźƯç
ƾƋŚƿŹƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƽŚƷƩŶƯƪưƗŹŵƶĩŶƷŵƾƯƱŚƄƳšŚƤǀƤŰţ Źŵ ƹ ŶƴŤƀǀƳ ƵŵŚƠŤſř ƪŝŚƣ ƾƘƯŚū ŹƺƐŝ ƾƬƿŹ ƪƤƳƹƪưů ƽřźŝ ŹŵŶƳźǀĭƾƯŹřźƣƵŵŚƠŤſřŵŹƺƯľŚŞƫŚƛƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽŚƷƩŶƯƉƺƗ
ƮŬůƪǀƫŵƶŝšŶƯŻřŹŵŹŵƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƽŚƷƩŶƯŵƺŞƸŝŢƤǀƤů
>è@ ŢſřƶūřƺƯƽŵŚƿŻƖƳřƺƯŚŝšLjĪƄƯŵŚƿŻ ƪƤƳƹƪưůŹŵƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃŵźŝŹŚĩŶƷŵƾƯƱŚƄƳ>é@źƳƹźŝšŚƘƫŚƐƯ ƽŚƷƩŶƯ ƲƷōƵřŹ Źŵ Ţſř Ƶŵƺŝ ŹřŵŹƺųźŝ ƽŵƺƘƇ ŶƳƹŹ Ĩƿ Żř ƽŚƷƺƿŹŚƴſ ƶƀƿŚƤƯ ƹ ƾŝŚƿŻŹř ƽřźŝ ƽřƵŵźŤƀĭ ŹƺƐŝ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƽŚƷƩŶƯźŤƄǀŝƶģźƷƁźŤƀĭ ƮƸƯƪƯřƺƗŻřŵƹŹƾƯŹŚĪŝƞƬŤŴƯ ƵŵƺŝźţƺǀĜƯŚĩƽĥƺƫƺƴĪţŹŵƵŶƯōŵƺūƺŝƽŚƷŢƟźŤƄǀěƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƽřźŝ źŤƸŝ ƽŚƷƁƹŹ ƹ ŚƷźţƺǀĜƯŚĩ ŢƗźſ ƂƿřżƟř ŜūƺƯ ƶĩ
ƶǀŞƃƞƬŤŴƯƽŚƷƩŶƯ>ë@Ŷſř>ê@ŢſřƵŶƃŚƷƵŵřŵŢƿźƿŶƯ
ŢſřƵŵźĩƾſŹźŝřŹƲƷōƵřŹŹŵƽŻŚſ
ŹƺƔƴƯƶſƽřźŝŚƷŹŚƐƣŢĩźůƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ>ì@ƲǀţŹŚƯƶƫŚƤƯŹŵ
ŹŚƐƣ ŵźĪƬưƗ ƶŞſŚŰƯ ƽřźŝ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ŵƺƃƾƯ ƭŚŬƳř šƹŚƠŤƯ ŹƺƔƴƯƶŝƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃŚƷŹŚƐƣŢĩźůƽŶƴŞƳŚƯŻ ŢƸūƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƪǀƬŰţƽřźŝƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƩŶƯ>í@ŚƳŹƹLJŚĭŢǀƟźƓƪǀƬŰţƹƶƿżŬţ ƩŶƯĨƿ>æåî@ŹƺƬǀţƹƱƺſźŤěŢſřƵŵźĩƶŗřŹřƎųŢǀƟźƓ ŻřƾĪƿŶƳŵřŵƶŗřŹřŚƷŹŚƐƣŢĩźůƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽřźŝƶŤƟŚƿŢųŚſ Ţſř ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ŚƷŹŚƐƣ Ţĩźů ƽŶƴŞƳŚƯŻ ƽřźŝ ŪƿřŹ ƽŚƷŹřżŝř
ƽŹŚƤƠƫřƹŷƲƀůƹƵřƺųźǀųƱŚƯŚſźǀƯřƪǀƬŰţƹƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƾƤǀƠƬţŵźĪƿƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝƲƷōƵřŹƾƿřŹŚĩŵƺŞƸŝçêë

ƶǀůŚƳ żŬŝ řřũ ƲƷō ƵřŹ ƶǀůŚƳ źƷ ƶƫŚƤƯ Ʋƿř Źŵ ŵƺƃ ƕƺūŹ
Decision Making ƵŶƳźǀĭƮǀưƈţŶůřƹĨƿƱřƺƴƗƶŝƱřŶƷřŻ
ƪǀƬŰţƁƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝƶĩŢſřƵŶƃƶŤƟźĭźƔƳŹŵUnit ŵŵźĭƾƯƾŝŚƿŻŹřŚƸƳōƾŞƀƳƾƿřŹŚĩŚƷƵŵřŵƾƄƃƺě
ƽŵŚƸƴƄǀěƁƹŹƽřźūřé řřũƾƬƿŹƶĪŞƃƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃæé
ƽŹřŵźŝƵźƸŝƶƠǀƓƹŢƧźůƹźǀſƪĩƵŹřŵřřřũƲƷōƵřŹŹŵ
ŵŹřŵƵŶƸƗźŝřŹƾƬƿŹƪƤƳƹƪưůšŚƯŶųƶŗřŹřƹšŚƳŚĪƯřŻř ŢſřšŹƺƇƲƿřƶŝřřũƾƬƿŹƪƤƳƹƪưůƶĪŞƃŹŵŹŚŝƪưůƶƿƹŹ ŵƺųƾƫŚųƹŹřŵŹŚŝƽŚƷƲĭřƹƽŵƺūƺƯŮŞƇŻƹŹźƷŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿřƶĩ Ʋƿř żǀƳ ƶǀůŚƳ ƩźŤƴƧ ƹ Ƶŵźĩ ƭLjƗřƱŚƃŵƺų ƶǀůŚƳ ƩźŤƴƧ ƶŝ řŹ ŶƿŚưƳ ƾƯ žƨƟ ŢƧźů ƹ źǀſ ƵŹřŵř ƽżƧźƯ ƩźŤƴƧ ƶŝ řŹ ŹŚƯō ƽŚƷŢƿƺƫƹř žƲƷōƵřŹ ƽŚƷŢſŚǀſ ƶŝ ƶūƺţ Śŝ żǀƳ ƽżƧźƯ ƩźŤƴƧ ƾųźŝƭřżƗřŹƺŤſŵƹƵŵƺưƳƆŴƄƯřŹƱŚƿźŤƄƯƽŚƷŚƋŚƤţƲǀƯŐţ ľLJƺưƘƯŵƺƃƾƯƵŵřŵŻŚǀƳŵŹƺƯƽŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿřƶŝƾƫŚųƽŚƷƲĭřƹŻř
ƪưů řŹ ŹřŵŹŚŝ ƽŚƷƲĭřƹ ƶƧ ƽŹŚƐƣ ƱŚưƷ Śŝ ƾƫŚų ƽŚƷƲĭřƹ
ŶƳƺƃƾƯŚŬŝŚūŶƴƧƾƯ šŹƺƇƲƿřƶŝƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƩŶƯŢųŚſƽřźŝƽŵŚƸƴƄǀěƮŤƿŹƺĮƫř
ĨƿƶŝŏŶŞƯƵŚĮŤƀƿřĨƿŻřŹŚŝƪưůƽřźŝŚƋŚƤţĨƿřŶŤŝřƶĩŢſř
ƽŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţžĜſŵƺƃƾƯŢſřƺųŹŵƆŴƄƯŶƈƤƯƵŚĮŤƀƿř ƵŶƃƶƀƿŚƤƯŏŶŞƯƵŚĮŤƀƿřŹŵŵƺūƺƯƽŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţŚŝŻŚǀƳŵŹƺƯ ƽƹŚƀƯŚƿźŤĭŹżŝŏŶŞƯƵŚĮŤƀƿřŹŵŵƺūƺƯƽŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţźĭřƹ
ƲĭřƹƵŶƃŢſřƺųŹŵŵřŶƘţƶŝšŹƺƈƳōŹŵŶƃŚŝƾŤſřƺųŹŵŵřŶƘţ
ŵƺƃƾƯƵŵřŵƆǀƈŴţƽŹŚŝ
Źŵ ŹŚŝ Ʋƿř ƪưů ƽřźŝ ƽƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ Śƿō ƶĩ ŵƺƃƾƯ ƾſŹźŝ žĜſ Źŵ ƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ źĭř ƩŚů źǀų Śƿ Ţſř ŽźŤſŵ Źŵ ŏŶŞƯ ƵŚĮŤƀƿř žĜſ ƹ ƵŶƃ ƽźǀĭŹŚŝ ŚƷŹŚŝ řŶŤŝř šŹƺƇ Ʊō Źŵ ŶƃŚŝ ŽźŤſŵ ƶĪƴƿř Żř žě ŵƺƃƾƯ ƭřżƗř ŶƈƤƯ ƵŚĮŤƀƿř Ţưſ ƶŝ ƽŹŚŝ ŹŚƐƣ
ƱōŹŚŝƹƵŶƃřŶūƱōƽŚƷƲĭřƹřŶŤŝřŶǀſŹŶƈƤƯƵŚĮŤƀƿřƶŝŹŚƐƣ
ŵŵźĭƾƯŵřŻōƱōƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫžĜſŵƺƃƾƯƶǀƬŴţ řŶūƽŚƷƲĭřƹŹƺƄĩŵƺūƺƯƶƿƹŹƢŝŚƐƯƶĩŢſřƲƿřƮƸƯƶŤĪƳ ŶƈƤƯƵŚĮŤƀƿřƶŝƹŶƴƳŚƯƾƯƾƣŚŝŶƈƤƯƵŚĮŤƀƿřŹŵŹŚƐƣŻřƵŶƃ ƶŝƵŚĮŤƀƿřƲƿřŻřŹŚŝƪưůƽřźŝŚƋŚƤţĨƿźĭřŚţŶƳƺƃƾƯŹřŸĭřƹ
ƲƿřŻřŢſřƺųŹŵŵŹƺƯŵřŶƘţƶŝŢƃřŵŵƺūƹźĮƿŵƵŚĮŤƀƿřĨƿ
ŶƳƺƃƵŵřŵƆǀƈŴţŚƋŚƤţƱōƶŝŚƷƲĭřƹ ƹ ŚƋŚƤţ řřũ ƾƬƿŹ ƶĪŞƃ ŹŵŹŚŝ ƪưů ƮŤƀǀſ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƽřźŝ ŻŚǀƳŵŹƺƯƽŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţƹŶƈƤƯƹŏŶŞƯŵŚƸƳƱřƺƴƗƶŝŚƷƲĭřƹ ŹŚŝƪưůƹƽźǀĭŹŚŝƹƶǀƬŴţƪưƗŢǀƇƺƈųƱřƺƴƗƶŝŚƋŚƤţźƷ ƹ ŵƹŹƹ ƹ ƁŹŚƠſ ƩŚſŹř ƹ ŢƟŚƿŹŵ ŢǀƫŚƘƟ ƱřƺƴƗ ƶŝ ŶƈƤƯ ƶŝ
ŹŚƔŤƳř ƱŚƯŻ ƲǀĮƳŚǀƯ ƹ ŶƯŚƄǀě ƱřƺƴƗ ƶŝ ƵŚĮŤƀƿř Żř ŹŚƐƣ ũƹźų ŢſřƵŶƃƶŤƟźĭźƔƳŹŵŢƫŚůźǀƜŤƯƱřƺƴƗƶŝŚƋŚƤţ
Ţſř ƽźţƺǀĜƯŚĩ ƩŶƯ ŢųŚſ ƹ ƽŵƹŹƹ ƽŚƷƵŵřŵ ƪǀƬŰţ
ƹŶƴŤƀƷƽŶƘŝƪůřźƯƩŶƯŹŚŞŤƗřƹŢŰƇƲǀǀƘţƹƾƴǀŝŻŚŝ ŢſŚƷƾūƹźųƪǀƬŰţƹƩŶƯƽřźūřƾƳŚƿŚěƶƬůźƯ

ƾůřźƏŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝƶĪŞƃŢǀƟźƓźŝźŧƺƯƪƯřƺƗƪǀƬŰţ 
ƽŶǀƠƯƽŚƷƁƹŹŻřƾƨƿšŚƄƿŚƯŻōƾůřźƏƁƹŹšŚƄƿŚƯŻō źŝ ƶƧ řŹ ƽŶǀƬƧ ƽŚƷźǀƜŤƯ ƱřƺţƾƯ Ʊō ƶƬǀſƹ ƶŝ ƶƧ Ţſř ŵƺưƳ ƾƿŚſŚƴƃ ŵŹřŸĭƾƯ źŧř ŶƴƿōźƟ źƔƳ ŵŹƺƯ ƾƠǀƧ ƶƈŴƄƯ ŵřŶƘţŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţƪǀŞƣŻřƽŵŚƿŻƪƯřƺƗƾƬƿŹƶĪŞƃĨƿŹŵ ƹŜǀƃŹŚƐƣŢƗźſƽźǀĭŹŚŝƹƶǀƬŴţƱŚƯŻšŶƯŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ Źŵ źǀſ ƱŚƯŻ šŶƯ ƹ ƥLjŝ ƽŵƹŶƀƯ ƱŚƯŻ šŶƯ ŜƫŚƛ ŻřźƟ ƶƫŚƤƯ Ʋƿř Źŵ ƶĩ ŶƳŹřŸĭźǀŧŐţ ƶĪŞƃ ŢǀƟźƓ źŝ ƾƳřźŰŝ ƥLjŝ
ŻřƶĩƩƹřźŤƯřŹŚěéƱřźƿřƾƬƿŹƪƤƳƹƪưůƶĪŞƃƪǀƬŰţƽřźŝ ŢſřƵŶƃƶŤƟźĭźƔƳŹŵŶƴƃŚŝƾƯƪƯřƺƗƲƿźţźŧƺƯ

ƶƴǀƸŝ ŶƴƿōźƟ Źŵ ŚƷƲĭřƹ ŵřŶƘţ ƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝ ƩŶƯ ƶƘſƺţ 
ƽŻŚſ ƶƴǀƸŝ ƁƹŹ Żř ƵŶǀĤǀě ŢǀƷŚƯ Śŝ ƾƿŚƷƮŤƀǀſ ƽŻŚſ
ƶŝ řŹ ƾƳřƹřźƟ ƽźƿŸěƝŚƐƘƳř ƶĩ ŵƺƃƾƯ ƵŵŚƠŤſř ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝŹƺƔƴƯƶŝƲƿřźŝŚƴŝŶƴƃŚŝƾƯřŹřŵƪŗŚƀƯƪůŹƺƔƴƯ
ƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝ ĨǀƴĪţ Żř řřũ ƾƬƿŹ ƶĪŞƃ Źŵ ŹŚŝ ƪưů ƮŤƀǀſ
ŢſřƵŶƃƵŵŚƠŤſřƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ

ƾƄƃƺě ƪǀƬŰţ ƽŚƷƁƹŹ Żř ƵŵŚƠŤſř Śŝ ƾƿřŹŚĩ ƾŝŚƿŻŹř 
Śŝ ƹ ŵŹřŶƳŚŤſř ƾưĩ Źřżŝř Ĩƿ ŚƷƵŵřŵ ƾƄƃƺě ƪǀƬŰţ ŚƷƵŵřŵ ƪǀƬŰţ ƹ ƾƿřŹŚĩ ƽźǀĭƵŻřŶƳř šŚƘƫŚƐƯ Źŵ ƵŵźŤƀĭ ŵźŝŹŚĩ ŹřżŝřĨƿƱřƺƴƗƶŝƱōŢǀƤƟƺƯŢƬƗƲƿźŤưƸƯŶƃŚŝƾƯŵźĪƬưƗ Ʋǀƫƹř ƽřźŝDEA>çæ@ŢſřƱōƁƹŹƱŵƺŝƽźŤƯřŹŚěŚƳƾưĩ
çç@ Ŷƃ ƶŗřŹř æîìí ƩŚſ Źŵ ŻŵƹŹ ƹ źěƺƧ żƳŹŚģ Ǝſƺţ ŹŚŝ ƽřŹřŵ ƲǀƴĤưƷ ŶƃŚŝƾƯ ƾƬƇř ƩŶƯ ŹŚƸģ ƽřŹřŵDEA>çè ƩŚſ Źŵ żƳŹŚģ Ǝſƺţ ƩŶƯ Ʋƿř .Ţſř ƾŞǀƧźţ ƾƨưƧ ƩŶƯ
Ʋţ ƹ æîîí źěƺƧ æîîë Ʃřźţ Ǝſƺţ ƹ Ŷƃ ƶŗřŹř æîíê ŢŝŚŧ ŽŚǀƤƯ ƶŝ ƵŵŻŚŝ ƩŶƯ>çç@ŢƟŚƿ ƮǀưƘţ ƹ Ǝƀŝæîîí ƹ źěƺƧ żƳŹŚģ Ǝſƺţ ƶƧ ŢſřDEAƾƬƇř ƩŶƯ ƲǀƫƹřCCR Śŝ ƾƿřŹŚƧŻźƯ ƽřŹřŵ ƩŶƯ Ʋƿř Ŷƃ ƶŗřŹř æîìí ƩŚſ Źŵ ŻŵƹŹ
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.ŢſřDEAƾƬƇř ƩŶƯ ƲƿźųōBCCźǀƜŤƯ ŽŚǀƤƯ ƶŝ ƵŵŻŚŝ ƩŶƯ ƹ ƾƄƿřżƟř ŽŚǀƤƯ ƶŝ ƵŵŻŚŝ ƩŶƯ ƹŵ Żř ƾŞǀƧźţ ƩŶƯ Ʋƿř ŵŹƺƯŹŵ źŤƄǀŝ ƶƘƫŚƐƯ ŹƺƔƴƯ ƶŝŢſř ƾƄƷŚƧ ŽŚǀƤƯ ƶŝ ƵŵŻŚŝ >çë@ƖūźƯ ƶŝDEAƶƴǀƯŻ Źŵ ƶŤƟźĭ šŹƺƇ šŚƘƫŚƐƯ ƶƴǀƄǀě
çêìƽŹŚƤƠƫřƹŷƲƀůƹƵřƺųźǀųƱŚƯŚſźǀƯřƪǀƬŰţƹƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƾƤǀƠƬţŵźĪƿƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝƲƷōƵřŹƾƿřŹŚĩŵƺŞƸŝ

ƶĪŞƃŢǀƟźƓźŝźŧƺƯƪƯřƺƗƪǀƬŰţçé
ƽźŧŒƯƪƯřƺƗƽŹřŸĭźǀŧŐţƵƺŰƳƪǀƬŰţƽřźŝƶƫŚƤƯƲƿřŹŵ
šŶƯƽŹŚŝƽŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫŵřŶƘţƽŹŚŝƽŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţƱƺĤưƷ ŹŚƔŤƳřƱŚƯŻƲǀĮƳŚǀƯƽƹŹźŝŹŚƐƣŢƗźſƹƽźǀĭŹŚŝƹƶǀƬŴţƱŚƯŻ
ƾſŹźŝƲƿřŢſřƵŶƃƵŵŚƠŤſřšŚƄƿŚƯŻōƾůřźƏƁƹŹŻřŚƋŚƤţ ƹƶǀƬŴţƱŚƯŻšŶƯƹŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫŵřŶƘţƪƯřƺƗľLJƹřƶĩŵřŵƱŚƄƳ
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ƲǀĮƳŚǀƯƽřźŝƩŚƯźƳŢƫŚůŹŵEffects PlotŹřŵƺưƳŻřƶƐŝřŹƲƿřŹŵ ŢſřçƪĪƃƢŝŚƐƯƶĩƵŶƃƵŵŚƠŤſřŚƋŚƤţŹŚƔŤƳřƱŚƯŻ

ŹŚƔŤƳřƱŚƯŻƲǀĮƳŚǀƯƽřźŝEffects PlotŹřŵƺưƳçƪĪƃ
řřũƾƬƿŹƪƤƳƹƪưůƶĪŞƃƪĩŹŵŚƋŚƤţ
ŵřŶƘţ ƽŹŚŝ ƽŚƷƲĭřƹ ŵřŶƘţ ƪƯřƺƗ žç ŹřŵƺưƳ ƶūƺţ Śŝ ƹŹŚƐƣŢƗźſƽźǀĭŹŚŝƹƶǀƬŴţƱŚƯŻšŶƯƽŹŚŝƽŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ źŧř ƽźǀĭŹŚŝ ƹ ƶǀƬŴţ ƱŚƯŻ šŶƯ ƽŹŚŝ ƽŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ ŵřŶƘţšŶƯźǀƜŤƯŜƿźƋƶĪƴƿřƶŝƶūƺţŚŝƹŶƳŹřŸĭƾƯƩŶƯźŝƽŹřŵŚƴƘƯ ƱřƺţƾƯŢſřƵŵƺŝźŤƄǀŝŚƷźǀƜŤƯźƿŚſŻřƽźǀĭŹŚŝƹƶǀƬŴţƱŚƯŻ ŵŹřŸĭ ƾƯ ƶĪŞƃ Źŵ řŹ źǀŧŚţ ƲƿźŤƄǀŝ źǀƜŤƯ Ʋƿř ŢƟźĭ ƶŬǀŤƳ
ƽŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿř Źŵ ŢŝŚŧ šŚƳŚĪƯř ƶŝ ŢŞƀƳ ƶĪŞƃ ŢǀƟźƓ ƲƿřźŝŚƴŝ ƵŶƄƳ ƽżƿŹƶƯŚƳźŝ ƂƿřżƟř ƹ Ţſř źţŽŚƀů ƽźǀĭŹŚŝ ƹ ƶǀƬŴţ
ƮŤƀǀſ ƾƿřŹŚĩ ƂƷŚĩ ƶŝ źŬƴƯ ŶƳřƺţƾƯ ŚƷƺǀţƺƯƺĪƫ ƹ ŚƷƲĭřƹ ŵŵźĭ
ŚƷƲĭřƹŵřŶƘţƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƩŶƯƶƘſƺţèé
ƵŶƃƵŵŚƠŤſřOptQuest ŹřżƟřƭźƳŻřƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝƽřźŝ ƭŚƳ ƶŝ ƾƟƹźƘƯ ƽŹŚĪŤŝř řźƟ ƽŚƷƁƹŹ Żř ŹřżƟřƭźƳ Ʋƿř Ţſř śřƺūƶĩŶƿŚưƳƾƯƵŵŚƠŤſřƵŶƴĩřźěƽƺŬŤƀūƹƕƺƴưƯƽƺŬŤƀū
ĨƿŵżƳƽŹřŶƤƯŚƿŢſřƶƴǀƸŝŚƿŚƷƁƹŹƲƿřƎſƺţƵŶƯōŢſŵƶŝ >çí@ŢſřƶƴǀƸŝƶŝ ŹŚƐƣƪǀƨƄţƱŚƯŻƹŲƿŹŚţžƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƽřźŝŻŚǀƳŵŹƺƯƽŚƷƵŵřŵ
ƽźǀĭŹŚŝ ƹ ƶǀƬŴţ ƱŚƯŻ šŶƯ ƹ ŹŚƐƣ ƾƫŚų ƹ źě ƽŚƷƲĭřƹ ŵřŶƘţ
ŢſřLJŚĩ ƩŚƀĪƿ šŶƯ Źŵ ƽŹŚŝ ƽŚƷŹŚƐƣ źǀſ ƶŝ ƍƺŝźƯ ƽŵƹŹƹ ƽŚƷƵŵřŵ ŚƷƵŵřŵšŚŞŧƪǀƬŰţŹŵŶƃŚŝƾƯřřũƾƬƿŹƶĪŞƃƪĩŹŵíêƩŚſ
Źŷō ƱŚŝōźƸƯ źǀţ ƽŚƷƵŚƯ ƶŝ ƍƺŝźƯƽŚƷƵŵřŵ ƶĩ Ŷƃ ƆŴƄƯ ŚƷƵŵřŵƲƿřƶĩŵřŵƱŚƄƳŶƳƹŹŹřŵƺưƳƾƫƹŶƴŤƀƷƖƿŻƺţƮƷƲưƸŝ ƖƟŹŹƺƔƴƯƶŝƶĩŶƳŹřŵƾƫƹżƳŶƳƹŹƽƺĮƫřšŶƃƶŝƹƵŵƺŞƳƪƤŤƀƯ
Ŝǀĩźţ Śŝ ARIMA ƽŻŚſƩŶƯ Żř ƾĮŤƀŝřƹ ƹ ƾĮŤƀŞưƷŵƺų Ʋƿř
ŢſřƵŶƃƵŵŚƠŤſřAR(2,0,0)ƶƴǀƸŝ è ƾƬƇř ƵŚĮŤƀƿř ëî ŢƄĭźŝ ƹ ŢƟŹ źǀƀƯ ìí ƶƫŚƤƯ Ʋƿř Źŵ źƔƳ Źŵ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƩŶƯ Źŵ ƶǀůŚƳ æè ƹ ƾūŹŚų ƽŻźƯ ƵŚĮŤƀƿř ƶǀƫƹřƖƿŻƺţƽřźŝƽŻŚŬƯƵŚĮŤƀƿřçëŻřƲǀƴĤưƷŢſřƵŶƃƶŤƟźĭ ŻřŹŚĩƲƿřƶĩŢſřƵŶƃƵŵŚƠŤſřƶĪŞƃźſřźſƶŝƽŹŚŝƽŚƷƲĭřƹ ŵźǀĭƾƯ ƭŚŬƳř ƵŶƃ ƞƿźƘţ ƩŶƯ Źŵ ƶĩ ƽźǀƜŤƯ çë ƢƿźƏ ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƾƈƈŴţŹřżƟřƭźƳĨƿƶĩArenaŹřżƟřƭźƳŻřƲǀƴĤưƷ
ƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃ ƽřźŝ >çì@ ŵŹřŵ żǀƳ ƾŝŚƿŵŹ ŢǀƬŝŚƣ ƹ Ţſř ŶƴƿōźƟ
ŢſřƵŶƃƵŵŚƠŤſř
ƹ ƾƬƇř ƽŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿř ƲƷōƵřŹ ƶƳŚĭƵŵżǀſ ƾůřƺƳ æ ƪĪƃ
ŶƷŵƾƯƱŚƄƳřŹƶƫŚƤƯƲƿřŹŵƶƘƫŚƐƯŵŹƺƯƽŻźƯƽŚƷƵŚĮŤƀƿř ƾƴǀŝŻŚŝƩŶƯŚƷŚƐųŹƹźƯƁƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝžƩŶƯŢųŚſŻřžě ŵŹřŵ ƩŶƯ ŢŰƇ Żř ƱŚƄƳ ƶĩ ŵƺƃƾƯ řźūř ŚƐų ƱƹŶŝ ƹ ƵŶƃ ŹŵƱōźƿŵŚƤƯŚŝƩŶƯƾūƹźųƩŶƯŹŚŞŤƗřƾſŹźŝƽřźŝƲǀƴĤưƷ ŶƇŹŵ ƲǀĮƳŚǀƯ ƶĩ ŢƟźĭ Źřźƣ ƪǀƬŰţ ƹ ƶƀƿŚƤƯ ŵŹƺƯ ŢǀƘƣřƹ
ŢƟźĭƶŬǀŤƳƱřƺţƾƯƹåååìľřŵƹŶůƵŵƺŝżǀģŚƳŹŚǀƀŝšřźǀǀƜţ
ŢſřŹřŵŹƺųźŝƾƿLJŚŝŹŚŞŤƗřŻřƵŶƃƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƩŶƯ
ŹŵŚƋŚƤţŹŚƔŤƳřƱŚƯŻƲǀĮƳŚǀƯƹƵŶƃřźūřƩŶƯƶƬůźƯƲƿřŻřžě ŢſřƵŶƯōŢſŶŝƲƷōƵřŹƾůřƺƳŻřĨƿźƷ

ƾƬƿŹƶĪŞƃŹŵŹŚŝƪưůƮŤƀǀſƾƯƺƸƠƯƩŶƯæƪĪƃ
ƱřźƿřƾƯLjſřƽŹƺƸưū

ƽŹŚƤƠƫřƹŷƲƀůƹƵřƺųźǀųƱŚƯŚſźǀƯřƪǀƬŰţƹƽŻŚſƶǀŞƃƾƤǀƠƬţŵźĪƿƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝƲƷōƵřŹƾƿřŹŚĩŵƺŞƸŝçêí

ƹŵŹŵƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝŻřƪŞƣƞƬŤŴƯƾůřƺƳƾƿřŹŚĩéƪĪƃ
ŹƺŰƯƾūƹźųƹƽŵƹŹƹŢƸūƹŵŹŵBCCƹCCRƩŶƯ

ƹŵŹŵƽŻŚſƶƴǀƸŝŻřžěƞƬŤŴƯƾůřƺƳƾƿřŹŚĩêƪĪƃ ŹƺŰƯƾūƹźųƹƽŵƹŹƹŢƸūƹŵŹŵBCCƹCCRƩŶƯ
ƶŗřŹř ŚƷƵŵřŵ ƾƄƃƺě ƾƬǀƬŰţ ƁƹŹ ƝřŶƷř Żř ƾĪƿ ƶĩ ŚŬƳō Żř
ũřźŴŤſřšŹƺƇŹŵřŸƫŶƃŚŝƾƯřŹŚĩŚƳƾůřƺƳƽřźŝƖūźƯƽƺĮƫř ƶŝ ŶƴƳřƺţƾƯ ŚƷŶůřƹ Żř ƶƗƺưŬƯ Ĩƿ ƶĩ Ʋƿř źŝ ƾƴŞƯ ƾŬƿŚŤƳ
ƭřŶƣřƾƿŚƷƁƹŹŻřƵŵŚƠŤſřŚŝŢƀƿŚŝƾƯŶƴƃŚŝŭźƐƯƺĮƫřƱřƺƴƗ
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ƢŝŚƐƯ ƽŶƴŝ ƶŞţŹ Ʋƿř Żř ƪƇŚů ŪƿŚŤƳ Ţſř ƵŶƃ ƵŵŚƠŤſř řŹŚĩ
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æèíìżǀƿŚěƱřźƸţƵŚĮƄƳřŵŢƿźƿŶƯƵŶĪƄƳřŵšřŹŚƄŤƳř

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www.RAI.ir.
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